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After 3.5years ive found my 100x Chimera $cmra The real $ghost
Market cap circa 100k High risk play What is Chimera? Chimera is an ERC-20 token (Ethereum) that aims to remove the transparency seen in typical Ethereum tokens. The pros and cons for transparency vary from person to person, with some people preferring an asset such as Monero over something like Bitcoin. Chimera is essentially Ethereum's solution to creating an anonymous service on Ethereum's blockchain. Thus, Chimera can be thought of a "private version of Ethereum" - Chimera holds all the capabilities as Ethereum with reduced transparency. Since the development team plans to have Chimera be used as a payment method, it can be seen as a currency. Why buy Chimera? Anyone who is interested in escaping the transparency of the blockchain would benefit from Chimera's technology. Whether you are looking to hide large amounts of funds or to simply stay anonymous, using Chimera's services leaves no paper trails, thus giving benefit to those seeking sanction from taxing authorities (although our team does not endorse this). Chimera tokens can also be used as a form of payment towards services our team will offer in the future. What will Chimera offer to holders? Chimera holders benefit by not being listed under the token contract address when searched on current block explorers. The transactions themselves can only be viewed in raw hexadecimal form and need to be sought out and converted to get the values of transaction functions. This information (commonly displayed for ERC-20 tokens) has been hidden by our token, preventing services such as WhaleWatcher.io from being able to scan the blockchain for large transactions and thus prevents them from posting the information on social media sites. For large coin holders, whale watching services can be trouble. Chimera and its services aim to surpass this hurdle. What incentives does Chimera give? Chimera can be viewed as a private form of Ethereum. It contains all the core functionalities of the Ethereum token and removes the associated transparency. Using Chimera as a currency provides incentives such as secure and anonymous transfers, a store of value over time, and early access to the products and services the Chimera team will be offering. How is this different than any other ERC-20 token? Chimera differs from most ERC-20 tokens in the sense that the token contract will not display the holders or quantities. This means that making a script/tool to collect the information of token holders is much harder to achieve than regular ERC-20 tokens. When Chimera is sent through the Scrambler service, it creates a chain of transactions effectively making the time complexity of a script of software exponential rather than linear. The only "easy to see" transactions are from the initial contract creation, minting, and burning. But wait - can't we still technically see transactions if we look hard enough? While block explorers such as Etherscan typically have trouble displaying the "To" address and amount with our token, it is not completely impossible to trace transactions. While users take part in Chimera's Scrambler, the difficulty of tracing the recipients grows exponentially. As more "middle wallets" are added, the complexity becomes even stronger. What's in store for the future? As of now, the Chimera team has their first main net service working at https://chimera.exchange/scrambler. This service allows you to further conceal a transfer of funds. Future projects include a crypto-based subscription website for content and media creators. Customers will be able to pay in Chimera as well as other major crypto assets to unlock media hosted by a creator, essentially creating the most anonymous subscription space to host your photos and videos. Make sure to check out our News webpage and Twitter for updates! Exchange: Uniswap v1 https://v1.uniswap.exchange/swap Contract: 0x37737ad7e32ed440c312910cfc4a2e4d52867caf 100m total supply. Circ supply is 4.5m https://chimera.exchange/statistics/circulating Useful links https://www.coingecko.com/en/coins/chimera https://etherscan.io/ token/0x37737ad7e 32ed440c312910cfc4a2e4d52867caf https://twitter.com/ChimeraToken https://forkdelta.app/#!/trade/0x37737ad7e32ed440c312910cfc4a2e4d52867caf-ETH https://chimera.exchange Newly incorporated and are now Chimera Digital, Inc based out of Ontario, Canada. See official documentation: Primary focus right now is to finish the last of the security tests for the wallet scramblemixer (now being called Scram!) and a major website redesign. Once they are up and running, they will aggressively apply to dexes to gain as much organic notoriety and liquidity as possible without having to take on any large investors. Whitepaper is being fully reworked atm. LinkedIn profiles for some of team: Lead Developer Alex can be found here: https://www.linkedin.com/in/alex-schwarz-94248269/ and here: https://www.linkedin.com/in/christina-tarpley-b1baa792/ If you look at etherscan you will see the tech working. It will show no transfers. However compare this with uniswap transactions and you will see the real movement. Nice tweet by a good team: https://twitter.com/binanceaudit/status/1266934471674277889?s=19 Federal Corporation Information - 1207567-9 - Online Filing Centre - Corporations Canada - Corporations - Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada https://www.ic.gc.ca/app/sccc/CorporationsCanada/fdrlCrpDtls.html?corpId=12075679&V_TOKEN=1591294452581&crpNm=&crpNmbr=1207567-9&bsNmbr= Key points to note:
Mixer tech on ether network.
Etherscan can not track real movements due to this. Uniswap info will show transactions though.
Team is only a few months old
Whitepaper is being redesigned.
Website is being redesigned
100k market cap should be looked at as an idea and researched further with their team
Just wanted to start a place where we can accumulate all of the known Apps that have been updated for the new iPhone X resolution. I don't know how well it will work, but my goal is to keep this main post updated with the Apps provided in the comments. I was validating each of them, but due to the number and struggle to keep up, I’m just taking new submissions for what they are (name and all). Help others by listing the full app name found in the App Store.
Here's the current alphabetized list:
Acorns: Invest Spare Change
AllTrails - Hiking & Running
Bloom - Coloring Book
Capital One Mobile
Chase Mobile (uses FaceID, but not updated for new resolution)
Citymapper Transit Navigation
Crypto Pro: Bitcoin Ticker
Darkroom - Photo Editor
Dark Sky Weather
Day One Journal
Deliveries: a package tracker
djay 2 for iPhone
djay Pro for iPhone
Documents by Readdle
Email - Edison Mail
ESPN: Live Sports & Scores
Expensify: Receipts & Expenses
Fandango - Showtimes + Tickets
Fantastical 2 for iPhone
Fog of World
Fooducate Healthy Weight Loss
Foursquare Swarm: Check-in App
Getaround - Instant Car Rental
Grindr - Gay chat
Halide - RAW Manual Camera
HoursTracker: Hours & Pay
Hydra - Amazing Photography
LastPass Password Manager
Lloyds Bank Mobile Banking
Microsoft Office Suite (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, etc.)
What does the portfolio look like from someone who mined his first bitcoins in 2011. Part 3
As per usual the 3 months has been all hand-on-deck, helping to bring further adoption utilities to Groestlcoin. The markets have been red but as always that doesn't stop the show from going on with regards to the development since the last release update on 24th September. Here's a recap of what has happened so far:
Groestlcoin was added to Changelly. One of the leading Crypto-to-Crypto exchanges that offer some of the best rates on the market – You can also buy with a debit/credit card too and you can buy/sell Groestlcoin directly from your Coinomi wallet, from the website https://groestlcoin.org#exchanges, and you can enable Changelly swaps on your GRSPay stores!
Groestlcoin was added to the JAXX Liberty wallet! One of the leading multi-crypto wallets in the stores. Safely store your GRS on Android, iOS, Mac OS X, Windows, Linux or Google Chrome. With Jaxx Liberty you are always in control of your private keys, and you can use your wallet on multiple devices. Note: This directly replaces the deprecated JS Wallet which was of a similar (but older) codebase.
Groestlcoin was integrated into AtomicPay – A decentralised cryptocurrency payment processor that eliminates the involvement of a third-party gateway, allowing merchants to accept payments directly from their customers, with over 2500 merchants already signed up, a public release is set for Mid-January 2019.
Huobi officially opened trading for Groestlcoin to Korean customers! And in addition, a giveaway of up to 10,000 GRS was held!
Unocoin ATMs started supporting Groestlcoin at their ATMs, granting the Indian community the ability to withdraw (For INR) and deposit Groestlcoin into their UnoDax account. Groestlcoin $GRS is available on #Unodax exchange with the following pairs: $INR, $TUSD, $BTC.
Groestlcoin was listed on SWFT BLOCKCHAIN, giving you more opportunities to swap your other altcoins with Groestlcoin or vice versa, quickly and securely.
Groestlcoin was added to One Page Exchange! Where you can buy and sell Groestlcoin quickly and easily without any form of registration!
CryptoWolf started accepting VISA, Mastercard and Maesto to buy cryptocurrencies from the CryptoWolf exchange in EUR or USD! Providing a new FIAT gateway to buy Groestlcoin.
Groestlcoin has been added to CoinZark (Formally VertPig) for fast and efficient Crypto-to-Crypto swaps at very competitive rates using exchange aggregates.
Groestlcoin was added to PungoWallet! Pungo wallet is built to showcase the features that anyone can achieve with blockchain technology. They have built a set of modular solutions that allow any company to build a blockchain layer to interact with traditional software.
Groestlcoin was added to StealthEX, offering anonymous cryptocurrency swaps with tens of other coins without disclosing any personal information. Just choose the pairs, enter your address, send your coins and receive your funds!
Groestlcoin joined InvestFeed, granting a company listing and blue verified badge.
Groestlcoin was officially added to Blockfolio Signals – For those of you that use Blockfolio, you can keep updated with all the latest news straight from the app, via the Signals icon.
Groestlcoin has been added to DeltaDirect – Those using Delta can now stay up-to-date with the latest Groestlcoin news, straight from your Delta portfolio tracker app.
Groestlcoin has been added to CoinGecko Beam – Where you can easily follow us and receive updates without searching through social media.
Groestlcoin is now live on BitUniverse Link! All of the latest Groestlcoin updates and news will be directly available on BItUniverse.
Groestlcoin was added to NovaExchange! Launched in 2016 and operating from Sweden, users can trade over 300 different digital assets.
As of the latest version of the Trezor Model T firmware, Groestlcoin is now officially supported! The Trezor Model T is the next-generation cryptocurrency hardware wallet, designed to be your universal vault for all of your digital assets. Store and encrypt your coins, passwords and other digital keys with confidence. The Trezor Model T now supports over 500 cryptocurrencies.
Blockbook MainNet & TestNet Block Explorer
Blockbook is an open-source Groestlcoin blockchain explorer with complete REST and websocket APIs that can be used for writing web wallets and other apps that need more advanced blockchain queries than provided by groestlcoind RPC. Blockbook REST API provides you with a convenient, powerful and simple way to read data from the groestlcoin network and with it, build your own services.
Support to broadcast transactions online. Broadcast a raw transaction in hex format over the Groestlcoin network.
Supports every web browser
API – Complete REST and Websocket API for querying blocks, transactions and addresses; and receiving live updates
Light – Thin data model using groestlcoind RPC interface to validate blockchain information. Fast groestlcoind blockchain synchronisation (~1hrs for the entire mainnet), using RocksDB for data storage and optionally raw groestlcoind data files processing.
Exhaustive – Reports on double spend attempts, outpoint confirmations, outputs spend status reports. Input and Output hyperlinks in transactions. Extended view in transactions to show advanced details.
Open Source, written in the Go programming language.
Groestlcoin has been added to the Edge wallet for Android and iOS. Edge wallet is secure, private and intuitive. By including support for ShapeShift, Simplex and Changelly, Edge allows you to seamlessly shift between digital currencies, anywhere with an internet connection.
Multi-Asset Support. Supporting Bitcoin, Ethereum, Groestlcoin and many others, you can safely hold your coins.
Exchange Support – Supporting Shapeshift, Simplex and Changelly enables the user to seamlessly shift between digital currencies as if you were storing your funds on an exchange.
In-app buying and selling, exchange your FIAT for cryptocurrency directly within the app.
Encrypted with a username and password. Seamless login into multiple devices.
Easy, secure access with PIN or fingerprint. Additionally, supporting 2FA authentication.
Client-side encryption – All of your data is encrypted on your device before any of your information touches the Edge servers. Being free from server-side hacks and malware means that your assets are as secure as they can be.
We are excited to announce that Groestlcoin has been added to CoinID! With integrated cold and hot wallet support, and a host of other unique wallet features, CoinID can easily become your go-to wallet for storing Groestlcoin. More details can be found here: https://coinid.org/s/groestlcoin-wallet-overview.pdf
Integrated Cold wallet. Store your funds offline and sleep tight at night. All you need is a separate Android or iOS device.
Transaction Batching – A feature normally reserved for exchanges, CoinID supports transaction batching, allowing the user to group transactions into one, saving space on the blockchain and lowering your transaction fees considerably as a result.
Complete control – Your private keys never leaves your device. "If you don’t control your private keys, you don’t own your coins".
SegWit support – Support for Segregated Witness, which means smaller transaction sizes, lower fees, and supporting all 3 address types (grs1, 3, F).
Hierarchical Deterministic – Use a single set of keys for multiple coins and addresses. When an address is used, a new one is generated.
Cross-Platform – Built with React Native for rapid development cycles and cross-platform support.
The Groestlcoin BIP39 tool is an open-source web tool for converting BIP39 mnemonic codes to addresses and private keys. This enables the greatest security against third-party wallets potentially disappearing – You’ll still have access to your funds thanks to this tool. What’s New
Added Coinomi, Ledger Client, Groestlcoinomi, Trezor, Safe T, Core, Groestlpay and Samourai to BIP32 Tab
Added BIP49 support
Add BIP38 support
Add CSV tab for derived addresses
BIP84 tab for derivation path
Display version number in top right corner
Groestlcoin ticker is now also displayed
Refactor method to clear old data from the display
BIP44 ‘purpose’ and ‘coin’ fields have been made read only
Tab Order is now alphabetical
Improve showing feedback for pending calculations
Show error when using XPUB with hardened addresses
Rename variables for clarity between BIP49 and P2WPKH Nested in P2SH
QR Codes use correctLevel 3 instead of 2
Update compile script to work across python 2 and 3
Add BIP49 to More Info section
Reword entropy text to indicate using a single source only
Detect and warn when entropy is filtered / discarded
Use new xpub/xprv prefixes for Segwit BIP49
Allow more rows to be generated starting from a custom index
BIP141 tab added for full Segwit compatibility
Show list of word indexes. Checksum shows in entropy details
Populate entropy field with hex value used from PRNG
QR codes with accents now work correctly by replacing jquery.qrcode with kjua
Allow initial number of rows to be set by the user
Raw entropy shows groupings with space every 11 bits for easier usage
Warn that entropy values should exclude checksum
Warn when generating low entropy mnemonics
Warn when overriding weak entropy with a strong mnemonic length
Allow XPUB to be used as root key for Segwit derivations
Add visual privacy safeguard. List alternative tools
Update bootstrap from 3.2.0 to 3.3.7 and jQuery from 2.1.1 to 3.2.1
GroestlcoinJS library upgraded to v3.3.2
General code refactoring, numerous performance improvements and bug fixes
Electrum-GRS is a lightweight "thin client" Groestlcoin wallet Windows, MacOS and Linux based on a client-server protocol. Its main advantages over the original Groestlcoin client include support for multi-signature wallets and not requiring the download of the entire block chain. What’s New
HARDWARE WALLET SUPPORT: Archos Safe-T Mini is now fully supported
Electrum + Android Version 3.2.3:
If a BIP39 seed extension/passphrase contained multiple consecutive whitespaces or leading/trailing whitespaces, then the derived addresses were not following spec. This has been fixed, and anyone affected should move their codes. The wizard will show a warning in this case.
The PRNG used has been changed
Fix Linux distributable, ‘typing’ was not bundled and was required for Python 3.4
Fix spending from Segwit multi-sig wallets involving a Trezor co-signer when using a custom derivation path.
Several other minor bugfixes and usability improvements.
ivendPay and Groestlcoin cryptocurrency have announced the start of integration. IT company ivendPay, the developer of a universal multicurrency payment module for automatic and retail trade, intends to integrate Groestlcoin cryptocurrency — one of the oldest and the most reputable Bitcoin forks into the payment system. Groestlcoin is characterized by instant transactions with almost zero commission and is optimal for mass retail trade where micropayments are mostly used. According to Sergey Danilov, founder and CEO of ivendPay, Groestlcoin will become the 11th cryptocurrency integrated into the payment module. The first working vending machines for the sale of coffee, snacks and souvenirs, equipped with ivendPay modules, served the visitors of the CryptoEvent RIW exhibition at VDNKh in Moscow and accepted Bitcoin, Go Byte, Dash, Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, Zcash, Bitcoin Gold, Dogecoin and Emercoin. ivendPay terminals are designed and patented to accept payments in electronic money, cryptocurrencies and cash when connecting the corresponding cash terminal. Payment for the purchase takes a few seconds, the choice of the payment currency occurs at the time of placing the order on the screen, the payment is made by QR-code through the cryptocurrency wallet on the smartphone. The interest in equipping vending machines with ivendPay terminals has already been shown by the companies of Malaysia and Israel, where first test networks would be installed. ivendPay compiles a waiting list for vending networks interested in buying terminals and searches for an investor to launch industrial production. According to Sergey Danilov, the universal payment terminal ivendPay for the vending machine will cost about $500. The founder of ivendPay has welcomed the appearance of Groestlcoin among integrated cryptocurrencies, as it is another step towards the realization of the basic idea of digital money - free and cross-border access to goods and services for everybody.
Why Litecoin Is Equally Good Or Better Than Bitcoin
https://seekingalpha.com/article/4086771-litecoin-equally-good-better-bitcoin Why Litecoin Is Equally Good Or Better Than Bitcoin Certified Research Analyst, Growth, long-term horizon, Cryptocurrency Enthusiast (85 followers) Summary Both Bitcoin and Litecoin are deflationary. Litecoin payment confirmations are faster. Litecoin is more adaptive to technical up-scaling. Both coins can compliment each other. Comparing two stocks to find out the relatively better value buy is quite easy for a traditional research analyst who deals with equity market. The number of parameters available for comparison is wide and time tested, starting from a simple quarterly result's net profit to complex ones like debt equity ratio, PE, trailing EPS etc. Stocks are categorized by its market capitalization and industry to make the study more focused. But when comes to crypto world, we don't have any time tested parameters to filer out the naked ones from others which are promising and disruptive in nature. So an investor who decided to invest in crypto currencies have to overcome this black-hole by using some simple traditional techniques which requires normal IQ level only. Let us first discuss about the similarities between these two coins and then step in to future outlook of Litecoin. litecoin 1. Both Bitcoin and Litecoin are deflationary These crux behind the deflationary nature is simple defined by the demand supply logic in basic economics. The supply of both these coins will be tapered in coming years and at the same time demand will be increasing if something catastrophic is not happening in crypto space. Bitcoin will have 21 million coins in its entire life span and Litecoin will have 84 million, which is exactly 4 times that of Bitcoin. Considering the fact that in early days, people gave little importance on secure storage, millions worth coins were lost which cannot be recovered by any chance. This is the reason why both of these coins are considered deflationary in nature. The current supply of Bitcoin is nearly 16.4 million whereas Litecoin has 51.85 million coins in circulation.
"When I released Litecoin there were a lot of other cryptocurrencies that were pre-mined by founders wanted to be super rich. I preannounced Litecoin on Bitcointalk, so people could mine it from the get go. It was more widely distributed from the start than Bitcoin." Charlee Lee, Litecoin founder
Litecoin payment confirmations are faster
The block generation time of Bitcoin is 10 minutes and Litecoin is 2.5 minutes. In simple terms, it means that transactions are confirmed 4 times faster in Litecoin. The downside of smaller block generation time is, it is easy for reversal of transaction compared to a larger block. Since the value of Bitcoin is high, Litecoin's future lies in using it for small transactions as the transaction fees associated is negligible compared to Bitcoin's transactions.
Litecoin has a large economy and our technology works on Litecoin with almost no changes. We like ethereum too, but ethereum is too different from bitcoin for us to easily switch. Litecoin has the best combination of economic size and technical similarity to bitcoin. On Litecoin, transaction fees are only a few cents. This means users can comfortably load only $1 onto our network while still paying negligible fees. This is a radically lower barrier to entry compared to $100 for bitcoin. Litecoin is one hundred times better for our application today than bitcoin. Ryan X. Charles, Yours
Both coins are based on "Proof of Work" concept The coin rewarding functionality of both Bitcoin and Litecoin are based on the concept of proof of work, though their algorithms differ. Bitcoin is using SHA-256 and Litecoin is using scrypt algorithm. SHA-256 is a complex algorithm and data block processing with SHA-256 possess slower—transaction turnaround times with less room for error. Successful mining of coins using SHA-256 requires hash rates at the giga hashes per second range or higher which means miners need high performing ASIC chips. Scrypt is simpler and it is is much easier to run on GPUs, and tends to use up less energy than using SHA-256.
Future Outlook for Litecoin Litecoin is more adaptive to technical up-scaling If we compare the history and road-map of Bitcoin and Litecoin, it is evident that the later has been well ahead in adapting new improvement plans. Segwit is already activated in Litecoin without any political doldrums. The founder Charlee Lee has joined back at Litecoin foundation after his stint in coinbase. The team behind Litecoin is now working on Lightning network and adding smart contracts. Once implemented successfully, these two projects can change the future of Litecoin. Lightning Network I believe Litecoin will be the first crypto to implement lightning network which would increase the scalability of transactions. Ind is one of the implementations which is in the final stages and expected to complete in next 6 months. Once lightning network is implemented, the number of transactions per second can grow to millions. Smart Contracts The future road-map of Litecoin shows its interest in anonymous smart contracts. Smart crypt vault is one of the items on the roadmap Charlie Lee is excited about. The technology combines MAST (Merkelized abstract syntax trees) and covenants – script combinations that restrict how coins are spent. The team is expecting a positive outcome in this month on this as per Charlie's tweet. Conclusion Charlee Lee introduced Litecoin as "silver crypto currency" when Bitcoin took the name of "Crypto gold". If we understand the fundamental logic behind both the coins, we don't need rocket science knowledge or high IQ to understand the fact that Litecoin is heavily undervalued. The ideal price of Litecoin is ultimately pegged with 1/4th of Bitcoin price. This is by the simple calculation of supply of coins, 21 million vs 84 million. According to google keyword search, Litecoin is still not in limelight like Bitcoin or Ethereum. This can change in near future and both the coins can compliment each other on a long run.
"Litecoin versus Bitcoin is like Facebook versus Google Plus," says Lee. "It would be hard for Plus to overtake Facebook. But if something catastrophic happens to Bitcoin, I could see Litecoin positioned to overtake it." Charlee Lee, Litecoin founder
I am not sure how much Bitcoin is overvalued or undervalued. But I am sure that Litecoin is undervalued when compared with Bitcoin. One final question to my readers, If Visa and Mastercard can co-exit and supplement each other, why not Bitcoin and Litecoin??
“Price Is What You Pay, Value Is What You Get”~Warren Buffett
The only factor that differentiate Bitcoin with Litecoin is its popularity. But the catch up rally is awaiting and it is not so far. Disclosure: I/we have no positions in any stocks mentioned, and no plans to initiate any positions within the next 72 hours. I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it (other than from Seeking Alpha). I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article..
“CAR WASH” THIS! - How the Blockchain could have prevented the biggest corruption case in Brazil’s history
“CAR WASH” THIS! How the Blockchain could have prevented the biggest corruption case in Brazil’s history Full article: https://flowbtc.net/research/CarWash_This.pdf Blockchain for beginners The Blockchain is the backbone of the Bitcoin protocol. It enables the Bitcoin network to reach consensus on which transactions should be validated or not in a transparent and decentralized fashion. There is no single entity or individual responsible for overseeing or approving transactions. It is a public ledger and the network oversees itself. Anyone can see the transactions happening in the Blockchain in real time through the Internet. There is a growing trend to use the Blockchain for much more than just processing bitcoin peer-to-peer transactions. The latest developments in the digital currency space have focused more on the power of the Blockchain technology for things such as data storage, titles, contracts and settlements than on the trade of bitcoin units. This new trend is called Bitcoin 2.0. Companies from all sectors around the world are currently exploring ways to utilize this innovative technology. The list of companies that have already publicly announced initiatives in this front includes Samsung, IBM, UBS, NASDAQ and the Bank of New York Mellon. The “Lava-Jato” (Car Wash) Operation Brazil’s state-run “big-oil” company, Petrobras, was the center stage for the biggest corporate corruption scandal ever put in place in the country’s history. Although investigations are still being conducted by the Ministério Público and the Polícia Federal, at least US$ 2.1 billion were diverted from the company just in bribe payments and illegal donations to political parties in the past 10 years, according to statements from Petrobras itself. A total of US$ 17 billion has been written off for related asset impairments as of April this year. The scheme involved contractors’ executives, Petrobras’ executives, political parties’ treasurers, black market foreign exchange dealers and ghost money laundering companies. The starting point of the “Lava-Jato” operation used to be the auction processes for projects in 5 different oil refineries. Around ten big construction and engineering companies allegedly formed a “club”, a cartel basically, and would stage bidding disputes but in reality they were colluding to inflate each project’s cost and pre-assigning winners in a rotational arrangement. The over budgeted amount would then be used to pay kickback bribes to executives and political parties and ensure the continuity of the scheme. image It is unquestionable that there was wrongdoing in each and every step of the operation but any attempt to prevent it would have to focus mainly in the two first steps: the auction process and the contracts handling and oversight. And that’s exactly where the Blockchain technology can be so powerful to make these processes transparent, auditable, yet fully secure. Throwing light into darkness According to recent articles by the press, the contractors organized themselves as a club, the “bribe club”. The public tenders budget and the bribes were pre-arranged between the club and Petrobras´ executives. The most obvious first step to make this process more legitimate would then be to open it to shareholders and the public. New Bitcoin 2.0 startups such as Factom have created smart and versatile solutions to all sorts of data applications into the Bitcoin Blockchain. Factom actually works as a data layer on top of the Blockchain. Running Petrobras’ public tenders using a solution such as Factom would allow every step of the process to be “hashed” and transformed into entry blocks building a chain of events. From the tender announcement, prospectus, every contractor’s bids, documentation, contracts, payments, everything would be securely stored and timestamped. The information would be organized into directory blocks which would allow someone to pull only the data that was available to him/her. These directory blocks would then stored into the Bitcoin Blockchain, which allows for real time auditing and instant verification against rules built in the entry blocks. For example, if one of the contractors was missing a certain required document, it would be detected instantly before the process moved forward. Most importantly, this would allow different levels of scrutiny and governance. For instance, the general public could be able to see the winning bids, their amounts, the date and time they were submitted and the name of the winning firms. On a higher scrutiny level, shareholders would be able to see all the competing bids but only after a winning bid was declared. On an even higher level, an internal compliance manager would be able to see all competing bids even before there was a winner and check for any potential conflicts of interest. External auditing firms would have access to contracts, payments and approvals in real time. Additionally, multi-signature arrangements could be designed to avoid giving too much discretion to a single executive in deciding the winning bids. image So why this can’t be done in a regular private network instead of Bitcoin’s public ledger? There are several reasons. The main one is that in this specific case there were empowered internal “bad actors”. At least three Petrobras’ directors were part of the scheme. If you are running a private and centralized network to perform the governance and record-keeping actions mentioned above, there are good chances that these “bad actors” will have power over the network to backdate, modify, forge, delete documents or audit trails in the private database. This cannot be done once the information is in the Blockchain. It creates immutable audit trails. While adopting such transparent and auditable business processes wouldn’t completely prevent the contractors from colluding and gaming the new system, the chances of them being successful in the long run would be significantly slimmer at the same time that the likelihood of an internal corrupt employee being caught would be dramatically higher. Implementing a Blockchain solution in any company should not be considered an easy task and in a state-controlled giant firm certainly wouldn’t be a walk in the park. In addition to the technology challenges, an immense political effort would be necessary. The Blockchain technology is still a novelty in many ways and a lot of its features still have to be developed, tested and re-tested. However, if we put things into perspective, when you have a fraud case of the magnitude of billions of dollars, in which a total of 97 individuals have already been indicted with charges, including politicians and government officials, then such an investment in transparency and governance starts to make a lot of sense. Whether this is all utopia or not we will only know in the future. However, the Brazilian people would certainly love to see ways to keep corruption away from their larger state-controlled company and be able to proudly say again: “O petróleo é nosso!” (“The oil is ours!”). This article was written by Marcelo Miranda founder and CEO of FlowBTC, a new digital currency exchange and blockchain consultancy firm in Brazil. Full article: https://flowbtc.net/research/CarWash_This.pdf
Bitcoin Core 0.10.0 released | Wladimir | Feb 16 2015
Wladimir on Feb 16 2015: Bitcoin Core version 0.10.0 is now available from: https://bitcoin.org/bin/0.10.0/ This is a new major version release, bringing both new features and bug fixes. Please report bugs using the issue tracker at github: https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/issues The whole distribution is also available as torrent: https://bitcoin.org/bin/0.10.0/bitcoin-0.10.0.torrent magnet:?xt=urn:btih:170c61fe09dafecfbb97cb4dccd32173383f4e68&dn;=0.10.0&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.openbittorrent.com%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.publicbt.com%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.ccc.de%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.coppersurfer.tk%3A6969&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Fopen.demonii.com%3A1337&ws;=https%3A%2F%2Fbitcoin.org%2Fbin%2F Upgrading and downgrading How to Upgrade If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the installer (on Windows) or just copy over /Applications/Bitcoin-Qt (on Mac) or bitcoind/bitcoin-qt (on Linux). Downgrading warning Because release 0.10.0 makes use of headers-first synchronization and parallel block download (see further), the block files and databases are not backwards-compatible with older versions of Bitcoin Core or other software:
Blocks will be stored on disk out of order (in the order they are
received, really), which makes it incompatible with some tools or other programs. Reindexing using earlier versions will also not work anymore as a result of this.
The block index database will now hold headers for which no block is
stored on disk, which earlier versions won't support. If you want to be able to downgrade smoothly, make a backup of your entire data directory. Without this your node will need start syncing (or importing from bootstrap.dat) anew afterwards. It is possible that the data from a completely synchronised 0.10 node may be usable in older versions as-is, but this is not supported and may break as soon as the older version attempts to reindex. This does not affect wallet forward or backward compatibility. Notable changes Faster synchronization Bitcoin Core now uses 'headers-first synchronization'. This means that we first ask peers for block headers (a total of 27 megabytes, as of December 2014) and validate those. In a second stage, when the headers have been discovered, we download the blocks. However, as we already know about the whole chain in advance, the blocks can be downloaded in parallel from all available peers. In practice, this means a much faster and more robust synchronization. On recent hardware with a decent network link, it can be as little as 3 hours for an initial full synchronization. You may notice a slower progress in the very first few minutes, when headers are still being fetched and verified, but it should gain speed afterwards. A few RPCs were added/updated as a result of this:
getblockchaininfo now returns the number of validated headers in addition to
the number of validated blocks.
getpeerinfo lists both the number of blocks and headers we know we have in
common with each peer. While synchronizing, the heights of the blocks that we have requested from peers (but haven't received yet) are also listed as 'inflight'.
A new RPC getchaintips lists all known branches of the block chain,
including those we only have headers for. Transaction fee changes This release automatically estimates how high a transaction fee (or how high a priority) transactions require to be confirmed quickly. The default settings will create transactions that confirm quickly; see the new 'txconfirmtarget' setting to control the tradeoff between fees and confirmation times. Fees are added by default unless the 'sendfreetransactions' setting is enabled. Prior releases used hard-coded fees (and priorities), and would sometimes create transactions that took a very long time to confirm. Statistics used to estimate fees and priorities are saved in the data directory in the fee_estimates.dat file just before program shutdown, and are read in at startup. New command line options for transaction fee changes:
-txconfirmtarget=n : create transactions that have enough fees (or priority)
so they are likely to begin confirmation within n blocks (default: 1). This setting is over-ridden by the -paytxfee option.
-sendfreetransactions : Send transactions as zero-fee transactions if possible
(default: 0) New RPC commands for fee estimation:
estimatefee nblocks : Returns approximate fee-per-1,000-bytes needed for
a transaction to begin confirmation within nblocks. Returns -1 if not enough transactions have been observed to compute a good estimate.
estimatepriority nblocks : Returns approximate priority needed for
a zero-fee transaction to begin confirmation within nblocks. Returns -1 if not enough free transactions have been observed to compute a good estimate. RPC access control changes Subnet matching for the purpose of access control is now done by matching the binary network address, instead of with string wildcard matching. For the user this means that -rpcallowip takes a subnet specification, which can be
a single IP address (e.g. 18.104.22.168 or fe80::0012:3456:789a:bcde)
a network/CIDR (e.g. 22.214.171.124/24 or fe80::0000/64)
a network/netmask (e.g. 126.96.36.199/255.255.255.0 or fe80::0012:3456:789a:bcde/ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff)
An arbitrary number of -rpcallow arguments can be given. An incoming connection will be accepted if its origin address matches one of them. For example: | 0.9.x and before | 0.10.x | |--------------------------------------------|---------------------------------------| | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.1 | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.1 (unchanged) | | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.* | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.0/24 | | -rpcallowip=192.168.* | -rpcallowip=192.168.0.0/16 | | -rpcallowip=* (dangerous!) | -rpcallowip=::/0 (still dangerous!) | Using wildcards will result in the rule being rejected with the following error in debug.log:
Error: Invalid -rpcallowip subnet specification: *. Valid are a single IP (e.g. 188.8.131.52), a network/netmask (e.g. 184.108.40.206/255.255.255.0) or a network/CIDR (e.g. 220.127.116.11/24).
REST interface A new HTTP API is exposed when running with the -rest flag, which allows unauthenticated access to public node data. It is served on the same port as RPC, but does not need a password, and uses plain HTTP instead of JSON-RPC. Assuming a local RPC server running on port 8332, it is possible to request:
In every case, EXT can be bin (for raw binary data), hex (for hex-encoded binary) or json. For more details, see the doc/REST-interface.md document in the repository. RPC Server "Warm-Up" Mode The RPC server is started earlier now, before most of the expensive intialisations like loading the block index. It is available now almost immediately after starting the process. However, until all initialisations are done, it always returns an immediate error with code -28 to all calls. This new behaviour can be useful for clients to know that a server is already started and will be available soon (for instance, so that they do not have to start it themselves). Improved signing security For 0.10 the security of signing against unusual attacks has been improved by making the signatures constant time and deterministic. This change is a result of switching signing to use libsecp256k1 instead of OpenSSL. Libsecp256k1 is a cryptographic library optimized for the curve Bitcoin uses which was created by Bitcoin Core developer Pieter Wuille. There exist attacks against most ECC implementations where an attacker on shared virtual machine hardware could extract a private key if they could cause a target to sign using the same key hundreds of times. While using shared hosts and reusing keys are inadvisable for other reasons, it's a better practice to avoid the exposure. OpenSSL has code in their source repository for derandomization and reduction in timing leaks that we've eagerly wanted to use for a long time, but this functionality has still not made its way into a released version of OpenSSL. Libsecp256k1 achieves significantly stronger protection: As far as we're aware this is the only deployed implementation of constant time signing for the curve Bitcoin uses and we have reason to believe that libsecp256k1 is better tested and more thoroughly reviewed than the implementation in OpenSSL.  https://eprint.iacr.org/2014/161.pdf Watch-only wallet support The wallet can now track transactions to and from wallets for which you know all addresses (or scripts), even without the private keys. This can be used to track payments without needing the private keys online on a possibly vulnerable system. In addition, it can help for (manual) construction of multisig transactions where you are only one of the signers. One new RPC, importaddress, is added which functions similarly to importprivkey, but instead takes an address or script (in hexadecimal) as argument. After using it, outputs credited to this address or script are considered to be received, and transactions consuming these outputs will be considered to be sent. The following RPCs have optional support for watch-only: getbalance, listreceivedbyaddress, listreceivedbyaccount, listtransactions, listaccounts, listsinceblock, gettransaction. See the RPC documentation for those methods for more information. Compared to using getrawtransaction, this mechanism does not require -txindex, scales better, integrates better with the wallet, and is compatible with future block chain pruning functionality. It does mean that all relevant addresses need to added to the wallet before the payment, though. Consensus library Starting from 0.10.0, the Bitcoin Core distribution includes a consensus library. The purpose of this library is to make the verification functionality that is critical to Bitcoin's consensus available to other applications, e.g. to language bindings such as [python-bitcoinlib](https://pypi.python.org/pypi/python-bitcoinlib) or alternative node implementations. This library is called libbitcoinconsensus.so (or, .dll for Windows). Its interface is defined in the C header [bitcoinconsensus.h](https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/0.10/src/script/bitcoinconsensus.h). In its initial version the API includes two functions:
bitcoinconsensus_verify_script verifies a script. It returns whether the indicated input of the provided serialized transaction
correctly spends the passed scriptPubKey under additional constraints indicated by flags
bitcoinconsensus_version returns the API version, currently at an experimental 0
The functionality is planned to be extended to e.g. UTXO management in upcoming releases, but the interface for existing methods should remain stable. Standard script rules relaxed for P2SH addresses The IsStandard() rules have been almost completely removed for P2SH redemption scripts, allowing applications to make use of any valid script type, such as "n-of-m OR y", hash-locked oracle addresses, etc. While the Bitcoin protocol has always supported these types of script, actually using them on mainnet has been previously inconvenient as standard Bitcoin Core nodes wouldn't relay them to miners, nor would most miners include them in blocks they mined. bitcoin-tx It has been observed that many of the RPC functions offered by bitcoind are "pure functions", and operate independently of the bitcoind wallet. This included many of the RPC "raw transaction" API functions, such as createrawtransaction. bitcoin-tx is a newly introduced command line utility designed to enable easy manipulation of bitcoin transactions. A summary of its operation may be obtained via "bitcoin-tx --help" Transactions may be created or signed in a manner similar to the RPC raw tx API. Transactions may be updated, deleting inputs or outputs, or appending new inputs and outputs. Custom scripts may be easily composed using a simple text notation, borrowed from the bitcoin test suite. This tool may be used for experimenting with new transaction types, signing multi-party transactions, and many other uses. Long term, the goal is to deprecate and remove "pure function" RPC API calls, as those do not require a server round-trip to execute. Other utilities "bitcoin-key" and "bitcoin-script" have been proposed, making key and script operations easily accessible via command line. Mining and relay policy enhancements Bitcoin Core's block templates are now for version 3 blocks only, and any mining software relying on its getblocktemplate must be updated in parallel to use libblkmaker either version 0.4.2 or any version from 0.5.1 onward. If you are solo mining, this will affect you the moment you upgrade Bitcoin Core, which must be done prior to BIP66 achieving its 951/1001 status. If you are mining with the stratum mining protocol: this does not affect you. If you are mining with the getblocktemplate protocol to a pool: this will affect you at the pool operator's discretion, which must be no later than BIP66 achieving its 951/1001 status. The prioritisetransaction RPC method has been added to enable miners to manipulate the priority of transactions on an individual basis. Bitcoin Core now supports BIP 22 long polling, so mining software can be notified immediately of new templates rather than having to poll periodically. Support for BIP 23 block proposals is now available in Bitcoin Core's getblocktemplate method. This enables miners to check the basic validity of their next block before expending work on it, reducing risks of accidental hardforks or mining invalid blocks. Two new options to control mining policy:
-datacarrier=0/1 : Relay and mine "data carrier" (OP_RETURN) transactions
if this is 1.
-datacarriersize=n : Maximum size, in bytes, we consider acceptable for
"data carrier" outputs. The relay policy has changed to more properly implement the desired behavior of not relaying free (or very low fee) transactions unless they have a priority above the AllowFreeThreshold(), in which case they are relayed subject to the rate limiter. BIP 66: strict DER encoding for signatures Bitcoin Core 0.10 implements BIP 66, which introduces block version 3, and a new consensus rule, which prohibits non-DER signatures. Such transactions have been non-standard since Bitcoin v0.8.0 (released in February 2013), but were technically still permitted inside blocks. This change breaks the dependency on OpenSSL's signature parsing, and is required if implementations would want to remove all of OpenSSL from the consensus code. The same miner-voting mechanism as in BIP 34 is used: when 751 out of a sequence of 1001 blocks have version number 3 or higher, the new consensus rule becomes active for those blocks. When 951 out of a sequence of 1001 blocks have version number 3 or higher, it becomes mandatory for all blocks. Backward compatibility with current mining software is NOT provided, thus miners should read the first paragraph of "Mining and relay policy enhancements" above. 0.10.0 Change log Detailed release notes follow. This overview includes changes that affect external behavior, not code moves, refactors or string updates. RPC:
f923c07 Support IPv6 lookup in bitcoin-cli even when IPv6 only bound on localhost
b641c9c Fix addnode "onetry": Connect with OpenNetworkConnection
The Bitcoin.com Explorer provides block, transaction, and address data for the Bitcoin Cash (BCH) and Bitcoin (BTC) chains. The data is displayed within an awesome interface and is available in several different languages. – Bitcoin Webhooks ( Events ) API – e.g. used to push notifications for new transactions or discovery of a new block on the network. BLOCKTRAIL Payment API The BLOCKTRAIL Payment API is built using Multi-Signature HD Wallets with 3 ( private ) keys in total for a more complete and secure wallet solution. BLOCKTRAIL’s implementation of Hierarchical Deterministic Wallets will generate a ... The long-lasting block-size dispute has catapulted into the center of attention again. One of the most talked about developments right now is Segregated Witness, of which a public testnet iteration was launched last week. The innovation as recently proposed by Blockstream co-founder and Bitcoin Core developer Dr. Pieter Wuille is a centerpiece of a scalability “roadmap” set out by Bitcoin ... Yes, in bitcoin an address begins with "1" or "3", in testnet bitcoin an address begins with "m" or "2". In the case of Ethereum both addresses can be used, but you can't transfer ether from Rinkeby to the real network. The same for Eos, you can have a testnet account only in testnet and not in mainnet and viceversa. Not ready to broadcast? Click here to decode a raw transaction without broadcasting.
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